Third Party Litigation Funding (TPLF)

Since its beginnings in Australia more than a decade ago, third party litigation funding (TPLF) has spread rapidly around the globe. The practice is particularly prevalent in Australia and the UK, but has also moved into the United States, Canada, Europe, and parts of Asia. Because funding arrangements tend to operate in secret, defendants may not even be aware that a funder is involved in litigation against them. read more...

TPLF, which is largely unregulated, creates numerous problems and conflicts of interest for litigants, their lawyers and the overall civil justice system.

For one thing, TPLF increases the volume of litigation. It is pretty simple: more litigation funding means more litigation. A study by NERA Economic Consulting found the rise of TPLF is responsible for much of the recent increase in securities class action litigation in Australia. In addition, TPLF firms’ business model allows them to spread risk across a portfolio of cases and take on cases that might be weak or dubious but still hold the possibility of a massive award. As a result, TPLF is likely to increase dubious litigation as well.

TPLF can also prolong litigation. Plaintiffs may choose to reject an otherwise reasonable settlement offer because they need to give a large part of any award to their funder. At the same time, prolonged litigation hurts defendants, who are forced to divert additional time and money from productive activity to litigation.

In addition, TPLF can undercut a plaintiff’s control of litigation. Obviously, funders have a major interest in the outcome of cases they invest in. So it is not unexpected that some funders seek to control a case’s legal strategy, both indirectly and directly. In one patent case, a funder sued the plaintiff for settling for an amount lower than demanded by the funder. In the infamous Chevron case in Ecuador, the funding contract with the plaintiffs stipulated that the funder would have veto power over the choice of attorneys and receive precedence in the disbursement of any monetary award. Arrangements such as these make a mockery of our system of justice by placing the interests of outside investors ahead of the interests of the parties in court.

Finally, TPLF creates ethical conflicts. Funders have no ethical obligations to safeguard the interests of the claimants. Significantly, it is a fundamental rule of ethics that lawyers have a fiduciary duty to their clients. But when TPLF investors get involved in a case, they often front the fees of the claimants’ lawyer. Funders are now moving into arrangements in which they finance a law firm's litigation portfolio, or provide startup money for litigation practices, with repayment to come from the proceeds of the firm's cases. Will funded lawyers act in the best interests of their clients, as they are supposed to do, or in the interests of the third party funder paying the legal fees and financing the firm's practice? The secrecy that surrounds most TPLF arrangements also can create ethical dilemmas, when judges unaware of a significant interested party to the litigation are not able to evaluate their own conflicts of interest in hearing the case.

U.S. Reforms

Stringent safeguards are needed to counter the many problems associated with third party litigation funding in the United States. In October 2012, the U.S. Chamber Institute for Legal Reform released Stopping the Sale on Lawsuits: A Proposal to Regulate Third-Party Investments in Litigation, a white paper which outlines a possible U.S. federal regulatory regime for TPLF. The paper’s recommendations include:

  • Prohibiting investor control of cases;
  • Forbidding direct contracts between investors and lawyers that do not also include the client; ;
  • Banning law firm ownership of TPLF firms;
  • Prohibiting the use of TPLF in class actions; and;
  • Requiring disclosure of funding contracts in litigation.

ILR is advocating for a revision to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure that would require disclosure of funding arrangements to the court and litigants.


Global Reforms

Australia

As the birthplace of third party litigation funding, ILR has been pressing for regulatory oversight of TPLF in Australia for many years, in hopes of slowing the rapid growth of this practice globally. In September 2013, ILR released Improving the Environment for Business in Australia: A Proposal for Reforming Oversight of Third Party Litigation Financing, which outlined an oversight regime of TPLF that would include:

  • licensing requirements;
  • ensuring that claimants, not funder, control the management of their cases;
  • a requirement that the funder act in the best interest of claimants; and;
  • banning law firms from owning funders and vice versa.


In October 2013, ILR released a second paper entitled, TPLF in Australia: Class Actions, Conflicts and Controversy, building additional support for an oversight regime by illuminating the pitfalls of TPLF. More recently, in March 2014, ILR released Ripe for Reform: Improving the Australian Class Action Regime, suggesting reforms to class action procedures and rules that would restrain the use of TPLF in class actions and reduce conflicts of interest and ethical concerns.

Europe

Throughout Europe, both at the EU institution level and in key member states like the UK and Netherlands, ILR is advocating for the introduction of meaningful legislative safeguards restricting the use of TPLF in class actions. In the UK, ILR has established the "Justice not Profit" campaign with the support of leading academics and business leaders. This multimedia communications campaign highlights the pitfalls of TPLF in the UK, especially in opt-out class actions – a combination that mixes two practices already prone to abuse. ILR has also advocated for transparency with respect to funding agreements. 

Canada

Canada has experienced an increase in third party litigation funding, especially in class action litigation. Recent court decisions, including those by the Ontario Superior Court, have approved specific TPLF agreements. These decisions have articulated important safeguards to protect class members and shine much needed light on TPLF arrangements. However, these are piecemeal standards at best; overall, the use of TPLF threatens to undermine the check on frivolous lawsuits imposed by “loser pays” cost regimes in various Canadian provinces.

Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Law Commission is considering a rule that would allow third-party funding (TPF) in international arbitration. ILR filed comprehensive comments related to this rule proposal in January 2016. The comments express ILR's strong agreement with the long-standing view of the Hong Kong judiciary that TPF is inappropriate in court litigation matters and should be prohibited in that context. However, if TPF is permitted in arbitration proceedings, such activity should be subjected to common-sense regulations to prevent potential negative consequences.  

Research

The Growth of Collective Redress in the EU: A Survey of Developments in 10 Member States

March 21, 2017 | This paper examines the 'state of play' of collective redress in 10 Member States in the EU and suggests minimum necessary safeguards to prevent litigation abuse taking hold in Europe.

The ILR Research Review - Fall 2016

September 22, 2016 | This edition of the ILR Research Review offers valuable insights from ILR's latest research on over-criminalization and the challenges of business compliance, over-enforcement, third-party litigation funding in the UK, and asbestos trust claims.

All Results for Third Party Litigation Funding (TPLF)

In the News Today - March 21, 2017

March 21, 2017 | News and Blog

U.S. District Judge Paul Diamond issued a bench warrant for the arrest of Martin Kenney and Garrett Kelleher after both failed to appear to determine their liability to insurer Cigna. In 2016, Judge Diamond ruled that Kenney and Kelleher had "repeatedly thumbed their noses at the courts of the United States" and were liable to Cigna for "orchestrating" continued action against the company. Read More »

The Growth of Collective Redress in the EU: A Survey of Developments in 10 Member States

Author: Ken Daly, Sidley Austin LLP | March 21, 2017 | Research

This paper examines the 'state of play' of collective redress in 10 Member States in the EU and suggests minimum necessary safeguards to prevent litigation abuse taking hold in Europe. Read More »

In the News Today - March 13, 2017

March 12, 2017 | News and Blog

U.S. House Judiciary Chairman Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) sent letters to the American Bar Association and every state bar association, urging the organizations to adopt requirements for warnings on trial lawyer advertisements that urge patients to discontinue the use of some medicines. Read More »

Class Action Reform Bill Would Spotlight "Cottage Industry" of Third-Party Litigation Funders

February 24, 2017 | News and Blog

In a story examining the Fairness in Class Action Litigation Act, the Wall Street Journal's Ben Depietro looks specifically at measures in the legislation that would "require disclosure of third parties funding class actions," and notes the U.S. Chamber's support for the bill. Read More »

In the News Today - February 24, 2017

February 24, 2017 | News and Blog

The American Law Institute is "cooking up new common law rules covering consumer contracts that would give courts an unprecedented range of reasons to invalidate or rewrite contract terms." Read More »

Australian Litigation Funder Expands to Texas as Industry Faces 'Increased Scrutiny' from Courts

February 22, 2017 | News and Blog

Australia-based third party litigation funder Bentham IMF is expanding to Texas, and has hired Eric Chenoweth, a commercial and intellectual property litigator at Yetter Coleman, to lead its Houston office. Read More »

In the News Today - February 16, 2017

February 16, 2017 | News and Blog

The current asbestos system is plagued by rampant fraud and abuse by plaintiffs' lawyers; this abuse harms both alleged victims and the economy. Thankfully, Congress is taking action to address this by advancing the Furthering Asbestos Claim Transparency (FACT) Act, which passed out of the House Judiciary Committee yesterday. The bill, among other provisions, aims to shine a light on these trusts so that compensation goes to legitimate victims. Read More »

Michigan Endowment to Invest in Litigation Funding

February 15, 2017 | News and Blog

The University of Michigan plans to invest $50 million with a fund co-founded by Boaz Weinstein and Lee Drucker that specializes in litigation strategy. Read More »

In the News Today - February 8, 2017

February 08, 2017 | News and Blog

According to London law firm RPC, the 20 biggest independent litigation funders in the U.K. ballooned from 575 million pounds in 2015 to 723 million pounds in the last year. The firm claims these entities increased litigation funding as they "gear up to fund more businesses pursuing legal dispute." Read More »

In the News Today - January 30, 2017

January 30, 2017 | News and Blog

As we enter 2017 with a new administration, new Congress, and renewed hope for legal reform, we are faced with the unsettling fact that the explosive growth of abusive Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) litigation continues. Read More »

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